Minerals can be produced from map squares with sufficient Rockiness, Mines, Mining Platforms, Thermal Boreholes, monoliths, forests, mineral bonuses, and from the Garland Crater, Mount Planet, Fossil Field Ridge, and Nessus Canyon landmarks.
Certain facilities (Headquarters, Recycling Tanks/Pressure Dome, Nessus Mining Station, and Subsea Trunkline) can increase the amount of energy produced by specific types of squares or the base square.
Apart from mineral bonuses and base squares, the amount of minerals any given square can produce is limited to two until the discovery of Ecological Engineering.
Once a base has exceeded its Support level, any additional units consume one Mineral per turn.
Surplus minerals are applied to production of facilities, units, and secret projects which a base is creating. When sufficient minerals are accumulated, the facility or unit is built.