Anna Cora Mowatt and Edgar Allan Poe


Poe's Portrait of Mowatt for Godey's Lady's Book

A year after writing about her in The Broadway Journal, Poe edited his reviews of his various views of Mowatt's play "Fashion" and her various performances into a portrait of her to be included with his impressions of other outstanding members of New York's literati that he completed for Godey's Lady Book. Because it is perhaps one of the most comprehensive evaluations we have of her work as a creative artist, I wish to reproduce here in full:


MRS. MOWATT is in some respects a remarkable woman, and has undoubtedly wrought a deeper impression upon the public than any one of her sex in America.

She became first known through her recitations. To these she drew large and discriminating audiences in Boston, New York, and elsewhere to the north and east. Her subjects were much in the usual way of these exhibitions, including comic as well as serious pieces, chiefly in verse. In her selections she evinced no very refined taste, but was probably influenced by the elocutionary rather than by the literary value of her programmes. She read well; her voice was melodious; her youth and general appearance excited interest, but, upon the whole, she produced no great effect, and the enterprise may be termed unsuccessful, although the press, as is its wont, spoke in the most sonorous tones of her success.

It was during these recitations that her name, prefixed to occasional tales, sketches and brief poems in the magazines, first attracted an attention that, but for the recitations, it might not have attracted.

Her sketches and tales may be said to be cleverly written. They are lively, easy, conventional, scintillating with a species of sarcastic wit, which might be termed good were it in any respect original. In point of style — that is to say, of mere English, they are very respectable. One of the best of her prose papers is entitled “Ennui and its Antidote,” published in “The Columbian Magazine” for June, 1845. The subject, however, is an exceedingly hackneyed one.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe

In looking carefully over her poems, I find no one entitled to commendation as a whole; in very few of them do I observe even noticeable passages, and I confess that I am surprised and disappointed at this result of my inquiry; nor can I make up my mind that there is not much latent poetical power in Mrs. Mowatt. From some lines addressed to Isabel M——, I copy the opening stanza as the most favorable specimen which I have seen of her verse.

Forever vanished from thy cheek
Is life’s unfolding rose —
Forever quenched the flashing smile
That conscious beauty knows!
Thine orbs are lustrous with a light
Which ne’er illumes the eye
Till heaven is bursting on the sight
And earth is fleeting by.”

Anna Cora Mowatt
Anna Cora Mowatt

 In this there is much force, and the idea in the concluding quatrain is so well put as to have the air of originality. Indeed, I am not sure that the thought of the last two lines is not original; — at all events it is exceedingly natural and impressive. I say “natural,” because, in any imagined ascent from the orb we inhabit, when heaven should “burst on the sight” — in other words, when the attraction of the planet should be superseded by that of another sphere, then instantly would the “earth” have the appearance of “fleeting by.” The versification, also, is much better here than is usual with the poetess. In general she is rough, through excess of harsh consonants. The whole poem is of higher merit than any which I can find with her name attached; but there is little of the spirit of poesy in anything she writes. She evinces more feeling than ideality.

Her first decided success was with her comedy, “Fashion,” although much of this success itself is referable to the interest felt in her as a beautiful woman and an authoress.

The play is not without merit. It may be commended especially for its simplicity of plot. What the Spanish playwrights mean by dramas of intrigue, are the worst acting dramas in the world; the intellect of an audience can never safely be fatigued by complexity. The necessity for verbose explanation, however, on the part of Trueman, at the close of the play, is in this regard a serious defect. A dénouement should in all cases be taken up with action — with nothing else. Whatever cannot be explained by such action should be communicated at the opening of the story. 

In the plot, however estimable for simplicity, there is of course not a particle of originality of invention. Had it, indeed, been designed as a burlesque upon the arrant conventionality of stage incidents in general, it might have been received as a palpable hit. There is not an event, a character, a jest, which is not a well-understood thing, a matter of course, a stage-property time out of mind. The general tone is adopted from “The School for Scandal,” to which, indeed, the whole composition bears just such an affinity as the shell of a locust to the locust that tenants it — as the spectrum of a Congreve rocket to the Congreve rocket itself. In the management of her imitation, nevertheless, Mrs. Mowatt has, I think, evinced a sense of theatrical effect or point which may lead her, at no very distant day, to compose an exceedingly taking, although it can never much aid her in composing a very meritorious drama. “Fashion,” in a word, owes what it had of success to its being the work of a lovely woman who had already excited interest, and to the very commonplaceness or spirit of conventionality which rendered it readily comprehensible and appreciable by the public proper. It was much indebted, too, to the carpets, the ottomans, the chandeliers and the conservatories, which gained so decided a popularity for that despicable mass of inanity, the “London Assurance” of Bourcicault.

Since “Fashion,” Mrs. Mowatt has published one or two brief novels in pamphlet form, but they have no particular merit, although they afford glimpses (I cannot help thinking) of a genius as yet unrevealed, except in her capacity of actress.


In this capacity, if she be but true to herself, she will assuredly win a very enviable distinction. She has done well, wonderfully well, both in tragedy and comedy; but if she knew her own strength she would confine herself nearly altogether to the depicting (in letters not less than on the stage) the more gentle sentiments and the most profound passions. Her sympathy with the latter is evidently intense. In the utterance of the truly generous, of the really noble, of the unaffectedly passionate, we see her bosom heave, her cheek grow pale, her limbs tremble, her lip quiver, and nature’s own tear rush impetuously to the eye. It is this freshness of the heart which will provide for her the greenest laurels. It is this enthusiasm, this well of deep feeling, which should be made to prove for her an inexhaustible source of fame. As an actress, it is to her a mine of wealth worth all the dawdling instruction in the world. Mrs. Mowatt, on her first appearance as Pauline, was quite as able to give lessons in stage routine to any actor or actress in America, as was any actor or actress to give lessons to her. Now, at least, she should throw all “support” to the winds, trust proudly to her own sense of art, her own rich and natural elocution, her beauty, which is unusual, her grace, which is queenly, and be assured that these qualities, as she now possesses them, are all sufficient to render her a great actress, when considered simply as the means by which the end of natural acting is to be attained, as the mere instruments by which she may effectively and unimpededly lay bare to the audience the movements of her own passionate heart.

Indeed, the great charm of her manner is its naturalness. She looks, speaks and moves, with a well-controlled impulsiveness, as different as can be conceived from the customary rant and cant, the hack conventionality of the stage. Her voice is rich and voluminous, and although by no means powerful, is so well managed as to seem so. Her utterance is singularly distinct, its sole blemish being an occasional Anglicism of accent, adopted probably from her instructor, Mr. Crisp. Her reading could scarcely be improved. Her action is distinguished by an ease and self-possession which would do credit to a veteran. Her step is the perfection of grace. Often have I watched her for hours with the closest scrutiny, yet never for an instant did I observe her in an attitude of the least awkwardness or even constraint, while many of her seemingly impulsive gestures spoke in loud terms of the woman of genius, of the poet imbued with the profoundest sentiment of the beautiful in motion.

Her figure is slight, even fragile. Her face is a remarkably fine one, and of that precise character best adapted to the stage. The forehead is, perhaps, the least prepossessing feature, although it is by no means an unintellectual one. Hair light auburn, in rich profusion, and always arranged with exquisite taste. The eyes are gray, brilliant and expressive, without being full. The nose is well formed, with the Roman curve, and indicative of energy. This quality is also shown in the somewhat excessive. prominence of the chin. The mouth is large, with brilliant and even teeth and flexible lips, capable of the most instantaneous and effective variations of expression. A more radiantly beautiful smile it is quite impossible to conceive.1

In this summary, Poe was even more parsimonious with his praise than he tended to be in the individual reviews that went together in its making. I think it isGodey's Lady's Book Cover important for the reader to remember, though, that Poe is ranking Mowatt alongside established literary figures of her day in this collection of essays. She was at that time a twenty-seven-year old newcomer with only her plays "Fashion," "Armand," and handful of poems to show. From the text, I think it is clear that he feels it is most appropriate to comment on her potential at this early point in her career.

He makes conspicuous mention of the fact that she was both young and a woman. In the 1840's both of these factors would make her a remarkable specimen in literary circles -- although Poe does include eleven women among his literati. He turns on them the same unsparing critical gaze he does the men.

Poe got into a certain amount of trouble over these biographical sketches. An editor's note appearing in the issue in which the essay on Anna
Cora Mowatt appears reads:

“THE AUTHORS AND MR. POE. — We have received several letters from New York, anonymous and from personal friends, requesting us to be careful what we allow Mr. Poe to say of the New York authors, many of whom are our personal friends. We reply to one and all, that we have nothing to do but publish Mr. Poe’s opinions, not our own. Whether we agree with Mr. Poe’s or not is another matter. We are not to be intimidated by a threat of the loss of a friends, or turned from our purpose by honeyed words. Our course is onward. The May edition was exhausted before the first of May, and we have had orders for hundreds from Boston and New York which we could not supply. The first number of the series, (with autographs,) is republished in this number, which also contains No. 2. The usual quantity of reading matter is given in addition to the notices.

Another note written after her sketch appeared read:

Editors’ Book Table: “We hear of some complaints having been made by those writers who have already been noticed by Mr. Poe. Some of the ladies have suggested that the publisher has something to do with them. This we positively deny, and we as positively assert that they are published as written by Mr. Poe, without any alteration or suggestion from us” 2

Feedback such as the above should remind the reader that there was not universal agreement among contemporaries who knew the parties in question with all assertions put forth in these essays.  We should keep in mind, therefore, that just because Poe might have thought Mrs. Mowatt's plays were being produced primarily because she was a beautiful young woman, this was mere conjecture on his part, even though it may have been -- as the subtitle for these essays read in boldface type -- it was his HONEST OPINION AT RANDOM RESPECTING AUTHORIAL MERITS, WITH OCCASIONAL WORDS OF PERSONALITY.


1. Poe. “The Literati of New York City” - No. IV) — August 1846 — Godey’s Lady’s Book

2.Godey’s Lady’s Book, p. 144, column 1.

Being an account of Mrs. Mowatt's sucessful turn as a playwright

Poe's Evolving Views on "Fashion"

In which Mr. Poe of Baltimore, renowned theater and literary critic, makes clear and well-known his admiration of Mrs. Mowatt's presence and performances.                                                                 Poe and Mowatt Homepage                                                                A discussion of Mrs. Mowatt's likely inspiration for the character T. Tennison Twinkle of her much-celebrated play "Fashion"      
Edgar Allan Poe’s Favorite                                        Poe and Mowatt Homepage                                             Was Poe T. T. T

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